Description of Examination

  1. Interview

    You are asked about any symptoms that may facilitate diagnosis.

  2. Physical measurements:

    Height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and body temperature.
    BMI, which is a measure of balance between height and weight, is calculated to determine your overall physical
    condition. This value also plays an important role in the assessment of respiratory functions.

  3. Blood pressure:

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
    Blood pressure is an indicator of your overall physical condition, and is important for the diagnosis of hypertension

  4. Metabolism:
    • Urinary glucose (fasting and after meals).

      The findings are important for the diagnosis of diabetes.

    • Blood glucose (fasting).

      The level of blood glucose is measured to confirm or rule out diabetes. This parameter also plays an important role in the assessment of pancreatic diseases.

    • Hemoglobin A1c.

      This parameter is used to determine the average blood glucose level for a period of approximately 2- months before the test.

    • Triglycerides.

      The triglyceride level is measured to assess fat metabolism in cases of arteriosclerosis and diabetes.

    • Total cholesterol.

      It is used to evaluate arteriosclerosis, liver function, kidney function, diabetes, and fat metabolism.

    HDL- cholesterol is the good cholesterol and LDL- cholesterol is the bad cholesterol.

    • Uric acid.

      This parameter aids in the diagnosis of gout and kidney diseases.

    • Calcium.

      The calcium level varies according to the condition of the parathyroid gland.

  5. Liver function tests
    • Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT).

      High GOT levels indicate the presence of acute or chronic hepatitis. The level of GOT occasionally rises after myocardial infarction.

    • Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT).

      Similar to GOT, high GPT levels indicate liver disease. It is the most important parameter among all the liver function tests.

    • Alkaline phosphatase.

      The alkaline phosphatase level is measured to check for the presence of hepatitis, obstruction of the bile duct, and bone lesions.

    • Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).

      The measurement of LDH level facilitates the diagnosis of liver disease and myocardial infarction.

    • Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GTP).

      The level of gamma-GTP rises during diseases of the liver and biliary tract. It is a particularly sensitive parameter in cases of alcoholic liver injury.

    • Total bilirubin.

      It is a useful parameter to assess the condition of the liver and gallbladder.

    • Total protein, albumin, and A/G ratio.

      These values reflect the nutritional status, extent and chronicity of a liver disease, and the condition of the kidneys.

    • Zinc turbidity test (ZTT).

      This test is used to determine the chronicity of a liver disease.

  6. Kidney function tests
    [Urine tests]
    • Protein.

      Urinary protein level is an important tool in the diagnosis of nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, nephrosclerosis, diabetic nephropathy, and other diseases of the urinary system.

    • Occult blood.

      Urinary occult blood may be detected in cases of nephrolithiasis, kidney and bladder cancer, and cystitis.

    • pH (H+ concentration).

      It is an indicator of the kidney function.

    • Urobilinogen

      The urobilinogen level is used to evaluate liver dysfunction. Consumption of some medicines may occasionally give rise to abnormal levels in healthy individuals.

    • Specific gravity.

      It reflects the kidney function.

    • Urinary sediments (X 400).

      (Red blood cells, white blood cells, squamous epithelium, hyaline casts, granular casts, red blood cell casts, white blood cell casts, Trichomonas, and bacteria)Urine is centrifuged, and the sediment is examined under a microscope. Knowing the composition of urinary sediments along with the urinary protein level, is important in the diagnosis of diseases of the kidneys, ureter, urethra, and prostate gland.

    [Serum tests]
    • Blood urea nitrogen (BUN).

      It is an important test to assess the kidney function.

    • Creatinine.

      Similar to BUN, creatinine is an important indicator of kidney function.

    • Rheumatoid factor.

      It can aids in the diagnosis of rheumatic diseases.

  7. C-reactive protein (CRP)

    High CRP levels indicate the presence of some inflammation in the body.

  8. Complete blood count.

    This test includes the red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hematocrit, hemoglobin level, ,and platelet count.
    This profile helps detect anemia, polycythemia, leukemia, and inflammation.

  9. Fecal occult blood (Stool examination)

    It provides a valuable clue for the diagnosis of diseases of the colon (e.g., polyps, cancer, and inflammatory bowel diseases.).

  10. Vision:
    • Eye examination.

      It is performed to diagnose diseases of the eye.

    • Ocular pressure.

      This is measured to detect glaucoma.

    • Fundoscopy.

      It is performed to detect changes in the blood vessels of the optic fundus. The changes may occur due to arteriosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes.

  11. Hearing Test:

    This test throws light upon the type and extent of hearing loss.

  12. Electrocardiogram (ECG)

    This is a very important test that indicates the presence of heart diseases (myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, irregular heat beat, and cardiomegaly).

  13. Lung function test:

    This test includes the measurement of forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second. It is used to assess the lung function. It is an important test in patients with suspected bronchial asthma, and pulmonary fibrosis.

  14. Physical examination:

    This includes inspection, percussion, auscultation, palpation, and breast examination.Physical examination is used to obtain important information that is not available through other types of examinations. The above-mentioned examination methods form an essential component of a doctor's overall assessment of a patient.

  15. Chest radiograph:
    • Lungs, trachea, and pleura.

      It is an important examination for the diagnosis of tuberculosis, lung cancer, pneumonia, emphysema, interstitial lung diseases, and many other diseases of the lungs. It can also be used to assess the thoracic spine, ribs, and mediastinum.

    • Heart.

      The chest radiograph also gives information about the status of the heart, atherosclerosis of the aorta, aneurysms, and arterial abnormalities.Cardio-thoracic ratio (CTR) is used to assess the extent of cardiac dilatation.

  16. Upper gastrointestinal series X-rayradiographs:
    • Esophagus

      This series of radiographs is useful in the detection of esophageal cancer, esophageal diverticulum, esophageal varices, esophagitis, and other diseases of the esophagus.

    • Stomach.

      This test provides useful information for evaluating stomach cancer, gastritis, gastric ulcer, ulcer scar, and other diseases of the stomach.

    • Duodenum.

      It aids in the diagnosis of duodenal ulcer, ulcer scar, duodenal diverticulum, cancer of Vater's papilla, and the pancreatic head.

  17. Ultrasonography:

    Screening of the liver, common bile duct, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, and mammary glands. It can be used to diagnose cancer, polyp, stone, and cyst in these organs.

  18. General aassessment:

    A doctor will explain the findings of the above-mentioned battery of tests, and will recommend specific further examinations, if required . Through repeated check-ups and consultation, consulting doctor will be aware of your normal values and this will enable precise diagnosis. Further examination and treatment may be provided at the outpatient clinic.

  19. Health and dietary consultation:

    After a personal interview with the doctor, dietary and lifestyle consultation by a certified nurse and dietitian will be provided upon request.

  20. Additional tests (Optional)

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
    Helical computed tomography (CT) scan of the lungs.
    Visceral fat estimation by CT scan.
    Gynecological examination.
    Cytological examination of sputum.
    Serological examination for the diagnosis of viral hepatitis (types B and C).
    Serological examination to screen for syphilis.
    Bone mineral density (to check osteoporosis).
    Serological test to detect Helicobacter. pylori.
    Pulse wave velocity (for the diagnosis of atherosclerosis).
    Tumor makers.
    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) to screen for colon cancer, and lung cancer.
    α-Fetoprotein (AFP), for liver cancer
    Prostate specific antigen (PSA), for prostate cancer.
    CA19-9, for pancreatic cancer

  21. General outpatient clinic:

    Further tests and/or treatment may be provided at the outpatient clinic.
    Internal medicine clinic: (General internal medicine, gastroenterology, respiratory diseases, cardiology, neurology, endocrinology, and metabolic disorders (diabetes).

    Specialized outpatient clinics: Endoscopy for examining the digestive organs, radiology (ultrasonography), smoking- cessation clinic, dermatology, and ophthalmology.

  22. Referral system:

    We will refer you to an appropriate hospital under the following conditions: when the findings of a health checkup and/or follow-up tests indicate the need for further tests that are not available at our outpatient clinic; when these findings suggest hospitalization; or upon request.